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Technology and the environment

Textile raw materials

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TECHNICAL TERMS

Absorption   Ability to take up liquids, for example
Hydrophobe   Ability to repel liquids, for exampe
Adsorption         Ability to make a substance adhere to a Surface
Sound insulating felt Special felt which has the ability to attenuate noise
Sound insulating art Interior decor which is used both for decoration and to reduce the noise level in a building
Arrestance efficiency        Unit for measuring the efficiency of filter media
Baffle        Screen/panel, common term in sound insulating applications
Base Fabric              Insert to give fabric such as needled felt or spunlace greater mechanical strength
Binding            Cohesion of fibres. Needled, woven, spunlace, thermally bound, etc.
Decibel           Unit which specifies sound level
Denier              Unit which specifies the thickness of a fibre, g/9,000m. alternative Dtex, g/10,000m
Density           Weight per unit of volume
Eggshell            Surface treatment which gives a filter medium a surface similar to eggshell
Filter Bags Replaceable unit with filter media used, for example, in ventilation systems or dust filter Equipment
Filter class Unit which specifies arrestance efficiency, usually linked to a standard based on standardised dust
Moulding                         Manufacturing process in which a textile product is heated and pressed in a cold tool
Moisture content                              Percentage of water in a specified volume
Hydrolysis                               Degradation process, usually in a warm and moist environment
K value Unit for measuring thermal conductivity
Calendaring                            Heat treatment to increase density and make the surface smooth. “Iron” using rollers
Twill                                  Type of textile weave – binding
Laminating                              Process for combining different layers
Air distribution hose         Product for distributing ventilation air in a building through textile hoses
Needling                                     Combining textile layers using barbed needles
Permeability                          Unit for measuring airtightness
Willowing The first stage of the textile production process. The types and colours of fibre are mixed in preparation for carding
Rink covering                           Usually a textile material for covering an ice hockey rink to make it usable for other activities
Circular needling                            Needling process which produces a belt or hose
Circular weaving                       Weaving process which produces a belt or hose
Satin                                         Type of textile weave – binding
Spunlace Combining textile layers using a high-pressure waterjet
Knitting                                  Textile manufacturing process
Sleeve Coupling                              Machine component, often manufactured from textiles, which links machine elements. Seals, absorbs vibration and compensates for dimensional discrepancies. Normally found for air movement
Support sleeve                                Used in filtration to give a filter bag a required shape
Singeing                                Treating a textile surface with an open flame to give the surface the required structure
Spring                                   The ability to compress a product, with a soft product having high spring and a hard product having low spring
Spring layer                                 A layer in a textile product which increases softness
Textile silo                                   Textile container for storing grains or powders
Dry mass content                             The water content in proportion to dry matter
Pressure drop                                Pressure difference between 2 points, e.g. in a ventilation or filter installation
Tabby                               Type of textile weave – binding
Wadding Separation of wad after the carding process in preparation for needling or spunlace
Warp                                  Lengthwise yarns in a woven product
Waterjet cutting               Use of water as a cutting medium for applications such as textile products, carried out at very high pressure
Crocheting                                  Textile manufacturing process
Weft                                  Transverse yarns in a woven product
Weaving                                   Textile manufacturing process in which yarns are bound together in different weaves
Density                                   Weight per unit of area, usually grams/square metre